The following pool of research seeks to inform readers about SUDI so that the community is best informed about its associated risk factors.

This research effectively informs our key messaging around SUDI, which is disseminated to a range of stakeholders including whānau, communities and health professionals.

Foundation for a Smoke-Free World and healthy Indigenous futures: an oxymoron?

Andrew Waa, Bridget Robson, Heather Gifford, Janet Smylie, Jeff Reading, Jeffrey A Henderson, Patricia Nez Henderson, Raglan Maddox, Raymond Lovett, Sandra Eades, Summer Finlay, Tom Calma, Hāpai Te Hauora Māori Public Health


Indigenous peoples represent a diversity of cultures, perspectives and experiences that brings tremendous vibrancy to our world. Within this diversity, many Indigenous peoples share a common history of colonisation that continues today.1 We humbly acknowledge and respect that Indigenous people are diverse and constitute many nations, language groups and cultures.

Why are those most in need of Sudden Unexplained Infant Death (SUDI) prevention information the least likely to receive it? A comment on unconscious bias and Māori health.

Houkamau, C.& Clarke, K. (2016).


"Māori and Pasifika populations in New Zealand experience poorer health outcomes than other New Zealanders. These inequalities are a deeply entrenched injustice. This qualitative study explores the experiences of six Māori and Pasifika leaders on health policy-making advisory committees. All had extensive experience in the health system. They were recruited, provided semi-structured interviews, the data coded, and a thematic analysis undertaken. Our findings show that inequalities in the health system are reproduced in advisory committees.

Being young Māori parents

Felicity Ware, Mary Breheny, Margaret Forster


Young Māori parents strategically navigate Western parenting expectations, and issues of indigeneity in their construction of early parenting. A culturally based narrative approach to research with young Māori parents revealed personal stories of early parenting located in wider expectations from family and peers, their Indigenous community and society.

Kaupapa Māori Evaluation: Transforming Health Literacy

Teah Anna Lee Carlson


"The key findings of the strands of the study are effective health literacy, with sub-themes for Ngāti Porou context and importance of whanaungatanga; kaupapa Māori evaluation – transformational praxis; reclamation of health literacy and contributions to the formation of Indigenous health literacy. To bring about change, we need to deepen health literacy’s scope to examine practices embedded in broader social narratives and cultural agency that recognise issues of equity, equality, and empowerment.

The combination of bed sharing and maternal smoking leads to a greatly increased risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy: the New Zealand SUDI Nationwide Case Control Study

Edwin A Mitchell, John MD Thompson, Jane Zuccollo, Melanie MacFarlane, Barry Taylor, Dawn Elder, Alistair W Stewart, Teuila Percival, Nick Baker, Gabrielle McDonald, Beverley Lawton, Martin Schlaud, Peter Fleming


Despite a major reduction in overall infant mortality, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) continues to be of concern in New Zealand, as the rate is high by international standards, and is even higher in indigenous Māori.

Wahakura Versus Bassinet for Safe Infant Sleep: A Randomized Trial

Sally A. Baddock, PhD, a,b David Tipene-Leach, MBChB, FNZCPHM (Hon), b Sheila M. Williams, DSc, c Angeline Tangiora, BN, b Raymond Jones, RN, PGDipHealInf, b Ella Iosua, PhD, c Emily C. Macleod, PhD, PGDipClPs, b Barry J. Taylor, MBChB, FRACPb,


To compare an indigenous sleep device (wahakura) for infants at high risk for sudden unexpected death with a bassinet, for measures of infant sleep position, head covering, breastfeeding, bed-sharing, and maternal sleep and fatigue.

Sapere - National Safe Sleep Programme Presentation on key findings

Sapere research group


National Safe Sleep Programme - Presentation on key findings